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What is an in-text or parenthetical citation?

Last Updated: Mar 09, 2016  |  1145 Views

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Every time you quote or paraphrase someone else’s work in your paper, you must include who wrote the work, what it is called, and where we can find a copy.

You give this information in two places: 

  1. In the paragraph where you are quoting or paraphrasing = this is called an in-text or parenthetical citation because you will put brief information about the work in the text of your paper.
  2. In the References/Works Cited page at the end of your paper.

 APA Parenthetical Citation Format Tips

General Guideline:

Include the author's last name and date of publication. If you are using a direct quote, add the page number.

Examples:

  • The article goes on to say that “People don't do derby just for exercise but usually because it becomes a part of who they are” (Fagundes,  2012, p.1098).
  • Fagundes (2012) believes that roller derby gives participants "a chance to feel like a superstar" (p. 1098).

Electronic Sources: If there is no author, use the first word or two of the web document title.

For more examples of parenthetical citations in APA format, see http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/02/ and http://nwtc.libguides.com/citations.

MLA Parenthetical Citation Format Tips

General Guideline:

Include the author's last name and page number.

  • The article goes on to say that “People don't do derby just for exercise but usually because it becomes a part of who they are” (Fagundes 1098).

  • Fagundes believes that roller derby gives participants "a chance to feel like a superstar" (1098).

Electronic Sources: Include in the text the first item that appears in the Works Cited entry that corresponds to the citation.  It might be an author's name, but, more likely, it will be the title of a website or name of a document found on a website.

For more examples of parenthetical citations in MLA format, see http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/02/ and http://nwtc.libguides.com/content.php?pid=2891&sid=14890.

AMA In-Text Citation Format Tips

General Guideline:

AMA requires that in-text citations be cited numerically in consecutive order using superscript Arabic numerals.

  • Use the numerals outside periods and commas.  

In a recent report,1 experts stated that the earth is round.

  • Multiple sources can be cited together.

Other reports2,3 recommend eating spinach and oranges.

  • Add page numbers to direct quotations.  Put the page numbers in parentheses after the citation number.

“..and the home of the brave.”4(p.45)

For more examples of in-text citations in AMA format, see http://libguides.css.edu/AMA.

Answered by Julie ChapmanBookmark and Share

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